What is Civilization?
The word civilization is literally used to mean censoring, removing defects, decorating and making a good manners. The term “civilization” in the literal sense refers to the appearance, form and manner of a nation that makes it distinguishable from other nations.
Islamic civilization is a civilization based on Islamic ideology and it is distinguished from other nations because of the conduct of all matters which are exclusive of Shariah Islam, such as the testimony of the word kalima ta’ibah. Prayer, fasting, Hajj , payment of zakat, the construction of mosques and azan.
The main factors of Islamic civilization include belief in Tawhid and Risalat, angels, heavenly books and the Hereafter.
Characteristic of Islamic Civilization
The foundation of every civilization is based on specific ideas, theories and beliefs. These ideas, theories, and beliefs do not appear sensually or materially, while the lives of the civilized culture are reflected in these thoughts and ideas.
Distinguishing Features of Islamic Civilization
The distinguishing features of Islamic civilization are the qualities and attributes that are found only in the holders of Islamic civilization, while those of other nations and religions do not have the same qualities.
Factors of Islamic Civilization
The meaning of the factor is that of the practitioner, and the factors are those beliefs and theories that make the believers decent.The factors of Islamic civilization are:
Believe in Almighty Allah
The basis of Islamic civilization is to believe in Tawheed, ie, God as the one and only in His essence, attributes and worship. Worshipping others than Allah is called shirk. Therefore, a person of Islamic civilization is “the believer” and not a polytheist. In the Holy Qur’an, Allaah says to Muhammad:
﴾قُلۡ هُوَ اللّٰهُ اَحَدٌۚ ﴿۱﴾ اللّٰهُ الصَّمَدُۚ ﴿۲﴾ لَمۡ يَلِدۡ ۙ وَلَمۡ يُوۡلَدۡۙ ﴿۳﴾ وَلَمۡ يَكُنۡ لَّهٗ كُفُوًا اَحَدٌ ﴿۴
Say: He is Allah, the One!﴾1﴿ Allah, the eternally Besought of all!﴾2﴿He neither begets nor is born.﴾3﴿ And there is none comparable unto Him.﴾4﴿
There is no such attribute as Allah. That is, all the attributes of Allah are personal, eternal and infinite. That is, all the attributes of Allah are personal, eternal, non-mortal and infinite, while the attributes of the creatures are limited, mortal, and granted by Allah. True faith brings humanity to morality such as piety, self-respect, humility, bravery, patience, equality, satisfaction, and hope.
It had such a great effect on the Islamic civilization of Tawheed that it distinguished itself from all other civilizations, first and foremost, and became free from all the rituals of idolatry in its beliefs and practices.
Believing in Angels
Angels, like humans and jinn, are creatures of God. Allah Almighty created them in accordance with His wisdom, they are pure light and wonderful creatures. By the command of Allah Almighty, they obey the commands of Allah in the universe. Angels are submissive creatures of Allah in which there is no element of disobedience. As stated in the Quran, Allaah says of the angels:
لَّا يَعْصُونَ ٱللَّهَ مَآ أَمَرَهُمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ
they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them but do what they are commanded.
[Surah Tahrim, Ayat-6]
Famous angels include Jibril (A.S), Mikail (A.S), Israfil (A.S) and Azrael (A.S). One of the main duties of the angels is to convey the commands of Allah to His Messengers and Prophets, to provide sustenance, to write human deeds, to occupy lives, to glorify Almighty Allah, to impose the laws of God into the universe.
Helping the Prophets and Messengers of Allah Almighty and destroying their enemies, praying for the forgiveness of the righteous people of Almighty, sending peace and blessings on the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) on the Day of Judgment with the permission of Almighty Allah. The intercession of believers and the inclination of good deeds in the hearts.
The influence of belief in angels is evident in the connection of Allah and servant in Islamic civilization. Belief in the Divine, the transmission of beneficial knowledge, optimism, the calculation of one’s actions, so that the vastness of the human being and The presence of these visible beings in the universe creates humility and it is hoped that even in the seemingly lonely moments, the angels of Allah approach him by the command of Allah and help them to do good and to avoid evil. For against Satan is his spiritual companion.
Faith in Heavenly Books
Allah has revealed books to His Messengers through revelation to guide humanity. To acknowledge all these books and scriptures revealed by Almighty Allah is to believe in heavenly books. Allah has also described a virtue of the righteous.
وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ
And who believe in what has been revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you,
[Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayat-4]
Famous heavenly books are the Tawra (Torah), Zabur (the Psalms), Injil (the Gospels) and the Holy Quran, which were revealed to Prophet Musa A.S (Moses), Prophet Dawud A.S (David), Prophet Isa A.S (Jesus), and the last Prophet, Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ). In addition to these books, scriptures were also sent to other prophets, including Adam (A.S), Hazrat Ibrahim(A.S) (Abraham) and Hazrat Musa (A.S) (Moses).Allah sent His Prophets to guide every nation and revealed to them the revelation. Allah revealed in the Qur’an:
وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ بِٱلْحَقِّ
and sent down with them the Scripture۔
[Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayat-213]
Other nations distorted and altered their books and used human thought in revelation. Now, only the Qur’an is free from all kinds of distortions, because Allah alone has taken responsibility for the protection of the Quran. So Allah Almighty has revealed:
إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا ٱلذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُۥ لَحَٰفِظُونَ
Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an and indeed, We will be its guardian.
[Surah Al-Hijr, Ayat 9]
In the Holy Quran, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was entrusted with the task of reciting book, teaching book and wisdom, explaining the rules and verses, purifying the people and preaching. The distinguishing feature of Islamic civilization is that education was revealed through divine revelation as the first and basic need of all human beings.
Along with the need and importance of education and learning, attention was paid to the importance of teaching, reading and writing.
Education in Islamic civilization is a mental, physical and moral training and aims to create good civilized men and women with high morality and character, and as responsible citizens, the nation and the Islamic nation and the welfare of all generations. Be effective in the welfare and economic, social, scientific and development of society.
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Belief in the Prophets
Allah Almighty appointed Prophets and Messengers to guide mankind. The first Prophet is Hazrat Adam (A.S) and the last Prophet is Hazrat Muhammad (ﷺ). Muslim truly acknowledges the Apostleship of all the Prophets and Messengers.
All the Prophets and Prophets are links to the same chain of guidance۔ The denial of any one of them is unbelief.
These pure populations become practical models by following the instructions sent by Almighty Allah. All these Prophets were forwarded to different regions and nations. That is, the prophets came to every nation. As Allah Almighty said:
وَإِن مِّنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خَلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌ
And there was no nation but that there had passed within it a warner.
[Surah Fatir, Ayat-24]
Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) appeared at the end of all the Prophets and Messengers, You (ﷺ) are send as last Prophet. The Qur’an has been revealed to You (ﷺ), the last heavenly book. Allah Almighty through Muhammad, He set the nations of all the Prophets in a string of unity. As Allah (S.W.T) says in Quran:
وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَٰكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَٰلَمِينَ
And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds.
[Surah Al-Anbya, Ayat-107]
Your apostleship and teaching are everlasting. Your being is so perfect that it is full of examples and ideas of guidance for every species and every kind, every group and every gender in your life. When we look at the lives of the former prophets, we find that Noah’s (A.S) life presents a rage against infidelity.
Life of Ibrahim (A.S) shows the scene of Image Breaker. Prophet Musa’s (A.S) life war with the infidels, provides examples of good governance and collective customs. The life of Isa (A.S) teaches humility, dedication, forgiveness and contentment.
The life of Ayub (A.S) is a model of patience. The life of Prophet Yunus (A.S) is an example of peace and confession.
Hazrat Yousaf’s (A.S) life in prison, too, is a lesson of truth and zeal.
Dawud (A.S) life is a book of praise and prayer.
Yaqub (A.S) life is an example of hope, trust and trust in God.
But in the Prophet Muhammad(ﷺ), The visions of all the prophets have been summoned.
The universality and universality of Your (ﷺ) message is for every country, every nation and last till the Day of Judgment. All over the world, it is only proud of the holders of Islamic civilization that they are followers of a Prophet who teaches his practice and example, along with education and principles.
Trust in the Hereafter
Belief in the Hereafter means that man does not die forever after death, but his soul remains and one day it will come that Allah will revive all human beings first and last. On that day, all the deeds done in their world will be accounted for.
And they will be fully rewarded for all their good and bad deeds. Those who do good will go to Paradise while those who do evil will be thrown into Hell.
Faith in the Hereafter is not merely a philosophical issue, but a deep connection to the moral and practical life of man. Those who believe in the resurrection after death are responsible in all matters of their life.
They know that they must answer Allah for all their good and bad deeds. Their actions will be useful or harmful to them not only in the world but also in the Hereafter.
Depending on faith in the Hereafter, leading to the path of Almighty, the grace and mercy of Allah in the face of adversity, the power to withstand the hardships of the ignorant, the brave, the hard, the ability to spend money in good works and Distance from hunger and ignorance of the world and the timeless prosperity of evildoers produce moral and practical attributes. Such qualities are not visible in other civilizations.